Tuesday, June 18, 2024

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兩者兼顧的決策方法──THE BOTH/AND APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING

商業和專業領導者必須做出的最困難決策,往往不是在明顯的對與錯、黑與白之間的問題選擇,而是在兩個灰色區域之間做出抉擇。例如,我一位擁有家族企業的CEO朋友,正在考慮解雇他那違反道德的姊姊。另一位朋友正在考量,是否給予一位表現不佳的好友員工第二次機會,因為他正在拖累著公司。

哪位企業家沒有過這樣的掙扎,既覺得需要在工作上加班,同時又知道自己的配偶正為子女的行為而苦惱,想要得到支持呢?很多時候,決定該做什麼並沒有簡單明確的答案。我應該解雇她還是不解雇呢?我應該讓他離職還是繼續留用,希望他能改進呢?我應該選擇工作的要求還是家庭的需求呢?

我們可以用另一種方式來表達這些問題:我應該恩慈相待,還是做一個好的管家?我應該明智處置,還是心存寬恕?我應該履行工作上的職責,還是履行我的家庭職責?

解決方法可以是「兩者兼顧」(Both/And)的。在某些決策中,我們不應該擲硬幣來做出一個隨意的決定,而是必須將硬幣的兩面都納入考量。我們必須考慮多重現實。我喜歡奇普 (Chip)和丹希思(Dan Heath)在他們的書《零偏見決斷法Decisive》中提到的一位專家的說法,他說:「在生活中,每當你認為『我應該做這個「或」那個?』時,反而應該問自己:『我有任何辦法同時做這個「和」那個嗎?』很令人驚訝的是,很多時候這兩件事是可行的。」我們可以稱之為「兩者兼顧的決策」。

神是一位「兩者兼顧」的神。神學家韋恩·格魯登(Wayne Grudem)寫道:「神所說所做的一切,都與祂的所有屬性一致。」神並不是擲硬幣選擇其中一個特質或另一個特質。對祂來說,永遠是兩者兼顧。換句話說,神永遠是:恩典和真理;慈愛和忿怒;憐憫和公義;智慧和慷慨;充滿喜樂和為罪悲傷,同時存在的。

兩個真理存在的張力。接受兩個真理存在著的張力,幫助我處理了過去幾年中面臨的一些最棘手的決定。例如:共同體與個人責任之間存在張力;同情和公正之間存在著張力;慷慨和好管家之間也存在張力;寬恕和問責之間更存在著張力。

我提到了一個關於最好的朋友工作不努力的例子,而且必須做出決定,但感覺被拉扯於兩個明顯不同的方向。你知道耶穌說:「要七十個七次的無限地寬恕」(馬太福音18章22節),但你作為一個執行管理者也知道,使徒保羅寫道:「…若有人不肯做工,就不可吃飯」(帖撒羅尼迦後書3章10節)。你該怎麼辦?你應該給予寬恕還是追究他的責任?如何在恩慈和做一個公司的好管家之間取得平衡呢?

與其解雇他或視而不見(非此即彼的決策方式),為什麼不給予他六個星期的時間來證明自己,並設定可衡量的目標?他得到了再一次機會的恩典,而你要麼得著了更高的生產力,要麼得到了一個合理的時間和方式來讓他走。這就是兩者兼顧的決策。這也適用在家庭和工作之間取得平衡,或者在考慮個人寬容時,兩者兼顧的決策張力可能很困難去接受,但它們會讓生活和工作變得更豐富、更真實。

@2023史帝芬. 格里夫氏博士(Dr. Stephen R. Graves)把自己描述為組織戰略家、實用神學家和社會資本家。他為高級主管、企業主以及年輕企業家提供諮詢服務。同時也是眾多書籍、文章的作者,和一位大眾演說家。他的網站是www.stephenrgraves.com。

備註:如果你有聖經,想閱讀更多相關的內容,請參考下面的經文(因篇幅有限,
請參閱未列出之經文:馬太福音5:33-37、43-47;路加福音 19:11-27)

詩篇 145章8-9節
145:8 耶和華有恩惠,有憐憫,不輕易發怒,大有慈愛。
145:9耶和華善待萬民;他的慈悲覆庇他一切所造的。

以賽亞書 30章18節
30:18 耶和華必然等候,要施恩給你們;必然興起,好憐憫你們。因為耶和華是公平的神,凡等候他的都是有福的!

馬太福音5章33-37節
5:33 你們又聽見有吩咐古人的話,說:『不可背誓,所起的誓總要向主謹守。』
5:34只是我告訴你們,什麼誓都不可起。不可指著天起誓,因為天是神的座位;
5:35不可指著地起誓,因為地是他的腳凳;也不可指著耶路撒冷起誓,因為耶路撒冷是大君的京城;
5:36又不可指著你的頭起誓,因為你不能使一根頭髮變黑變白了。
5:37你們的話,是就說是,不是就說不是;若再多說,就是出於那惡者(或作:就是從惡裡出來的)。

以弗所書 2章3-5節
2:3 我們從前也都在他們中間,放縱肉體的私慾,隨著肉體和心中所喜好的去行,本為可怒之子,和別人一樣。
2:4然而,神既有豐富的憐憫,因他愛我們的大愛,
2:5當我們死在過犯中的時候,便叫我們與基督一同活過來。你們得救是本乎恩。

反省與問題討論

  1. 你是否能理解所描述的困難決策,這些決策並不是很容易的「非黑即白」,而是需要考慮多個且通常相互衝突的因素呢?可以舉一個你自己處理過的例子嗎?
  2. 你對於神是一個「兩者兼顧」的神,即有時祂的屬性似乎存在相互衝突,你有何看法呢?當你在尋求做出公平和正確的決定,而經歷祂的幫助和引導時,有何感受呢?
  3. 文中所提及的在工作和個人生活之間取得適當平衡的問題,你如何試圖在工作上應對緊迫的需求,同時在家庭中履行你的責任呢?
  4. 你還有什麼其他具有張力的領域,有時讓你掙扎不已嗎?例如,想要慷慨大方,同時又要做一個上帝所託付的好管家?或者在冒犯者應該面對他們的錯誤後果時,選擇寬恕他們?


THE BOTH/AND APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING

By Stephen R. Graves

Often the most difficult decisions business and professional leaders must make are not between issues that are black and white – obviously right or wrong – but between two shades of gray. For instance, a CEO friend who owns a family business is pondering firing his unethical sister. Another of my friends is debating whether to give a second chance for an underperforming best-friend employee who is dragging the company down.

What entrepreneur has not struggled with feeling the need to put in a lot of overtime at work but also knowing their spouse is struggling with their children’s behavior at home and wanting support? Many times, deciding what to do does not have easy, simple answers. Should I fire her or not? Should I let him go or keep him on, hoping he can improve? Should I choose work demands or family needs? 

We could phrase the questions a different way: Should I be kind or be a good steward? Should I be wise or be forgiving? Should I fulfill my duty at work or fulfill my duty at home?

The solution can be ‘Both/And.’ In some decisions, instead of flipping a coin to reach an arbitrary decision, we must bring both sides of the coin into the equation. We must consider multiple realities. I like what Chip and Dan Heath report in their book, Decisive. They quote one expert who says, “Any time in life you’re tempted to think, ‘Should I do this OR that?’ instead, ask yourself, ‘Is there a way I can do this AND that?’ It is surprisingly frequent that it is feasible to do both things.” We could call this “both/and decision making.”

God is a God of ‘Both/And.’ Theologian Wayne Grudem writes, “Everything [God] says or does is consistent with all His attributes.” God does not flip the coin and choose one character quality or another. With Him, it is always both/and. In other words, God is always: Grace and Truth; Loving and Wrathful; Merciful and Just; Wise and Generous; Joyful and Grieving over sin.

Two truths held in tension. Embracing two truths held in tension has helped me navigate some of the trickiest decisions I’ve faced over the last few years. For example: Community is held in tension with personal responsibility. Compassion is held in tension with justice. Generosity is held in tension with stewardship. Forgiveness is held in tension with accountability. 

I mentioned an example of a best friend not working hard and having to make a decision about it, but feeling pulled in two apparently different directions. You know Jesus says, “Forgive without end” (Matthew 18:22), but the executive in you knows the apostle Paul also wrote, “If you don’t work, you don’t eat” (2 Thessalonians 3:10). What do you do? Should you offer forgiveness or hold him accountable? What would it look like to be gracious and be a good steward of the company?

Rather than fire him or look the other way (either/or decision making), what if you gave the individual six more weeks to prove himself with measurable goals? He gets the graciousness of one more chance, and you get either enhanced productivity or a reasonable time and means for letting him go. That is both/and decision making. This also comes into play in trying to balance home and work, or as we consider personal generosity. Both/and decision-making tensions may be hard to embrace, but they make for a richer and more authentic life and work.

© 2023. Dr. Stephen R. Graves describes himself as an organizational strategist, pragmatic theologian, and social capitalist. He advises executives and business owners, as well as young entrepreneurs. He is author of numerous books and many articles, and a public speaker. His website is www.stephenrgraves.com.

Reflection/Discussion Questions

  1. Can you relate to the difficult decisions that are described, ones that are not “black and white” – easily resolved – but rather ones with multiple, often-conflicting factors to consider? Give an example of one you had to deal with.
  2. What are your thoughts about the idea of God being a “both/and” God, that sometimes His attributes seem to be in conflict? How does that make you feel as you see His help in seeking to arrive at fair and right decisions?
  3. The problem of seeking to achieve a proper balance for both work and personal life in mentioned. How have you tried to address pressing demands at work along with your responsibilities at home with your family?
  4. What is another area of tension that you have wrestled with at times? For instance, the challenge of wanting to be generous and at the same time, being a good steward of the resources God has entrusted to you? Or being forgiving when the offending party should face consequences of their wrongdoing?

NOTE: If you have a Bible and would like to read more, consider the following passages:
Psalm 145:8-9; Isaiah 30:18; Matthew 5:33-37, 43-47; Luke 19:11-27; Ephesians 2:3-5



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